Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. Cannabis belongs to the Cannabaceae family and it comes in many different types: Cannabis sativa, indica and ruderalis. It contains more than 80 cannabinoids. The plant derived cannabinoids are called phytocannabinoids. The major phytocannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). There are other cannabinoids involved in therapeutic effects like tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabigerol (CBG).
The endocannabinoid system is a signaling network that modulates neurological functions and inflammatory processes. This system contains cannabinoid receptors, so cannabinoids work by binding to specific CB receptors. It plays a key role in our immune and nervous system. There are two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is found in the brain and central nervous system. The CB2 receptors are found on certain cells of the immune system.
Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psyhoactive component of cannabis. It activates both CB1 and CB2 receptors. THC is used to help with pain, glaucoma, insomnia, nausea and anxiety.
Cannabidiol is the secondary non-psyhoactive component of cannabis. It is used for anxiety, pain, arthritis, schizophrenia, epilepsy.
Cannabigerol is a non psyhoactive cannabinoid. It is a potent antibacterial agent and has cancer fighting properties.
Cannabinol is created from the oxidation of THC. Primary uses of CBN is to treat insomnia, glaucoma and anxiety.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin has psychoactive properties. It is an appetite suppressant and has ability to regulate blood sugar levels. It activates CB2 receptors, thereby decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress, which are key processes in the development of diabetes and diabetic complications.
Cannabichromene is non-psyhoactive. CBC produce anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect when combined with other cannabinoids.